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Publisher: Diyala University


Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Nabeel Ali Bakr

Print ISSN: 8373-2222

Online ISSN: 2518-9255

Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Film Thickness on Some Optical Parameters

Rezhna Mhammed Kuekha; Sabah A. Salman

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 1-11

Transparent films of Polyvinyl Alcohol with different thicknesses were made by applying solution casting technique at a temperature of (70°C). The optical absorption and transmission spectra were accomplished for all samples at room temperature over the wavelength region (190-1100) nm. Studying the effect of film thickness, which is measured with micrometer with an error not exceeding (5%), on optical parameters gives an indication that all these parameters are affected with thickness. The experimental results for Polyvinyl Alcohol films show that the optical energy gap decreases by the increasing of film thickness. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant are increased by increasing the film thickness.

Paleodepositional environment and hydrocarbon potential of Ora Formation, North and West Iraq

North and West Iraq; Paleodepositional environment and hydrocarbon potential of Ora Formation

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 12-24

Ora Formation (Lower Carboniferous) in Akkas gas field, and in outcrop in the north Iraq, was examined by using the total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), sulfur content (S), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Gas Chromatography (GC), and incident light microscopy to evaluate their hydrocarbon potentiality and paleodepositional environment. These measurements are indicated that these successions can be considered potential source rocks. The organic matters are mixed of marine and terrestrial; and they are immature. These successions were deposited in more oxic environment.

The Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts from Punica granatum, Camellia, and Prosopis farcta on Some Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Species

Qanat Mahmood Atya; Gulbahar F. Karim; Siham Sh. AL-Salihi

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 25-39

Medicinal plants play important role in the development of therapeutic agents, for curing diseases. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of three medicinal plants; pomegranate (Punica granatum), black tea (Camellia) and Kharnoob (Prosopis farcta) against some antibiotic resistant isolates The agar-well diffusion method was used for the determination of the antibacterial activity of the extract at different concentration (25,50,100, and 200) mg/ml. The bacteria, isolated from infected wound and diarrheal stool, then identified using routine cultural, morphological, and biochemical testes, The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility assay showed that the selected bacterial isolates demonstrated was high resistance to most common used antibiotics, and different multidrug resistance patterns had been seen. The results showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the peels of P. granatum peels had strong activity against bacterial isolates from wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Escherichia coli. In addition, the aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. granatum pulp, and black tea leaves demonstrated high antibacterial activity against a number of bacterial isolates obtained from diarrheal stool samples, including; E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. In contrast extract from P. farcta didn’t show any antimicrobial activity. It can be concluded that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. granatum (pulp and peel), and black tea had broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against different bacterial species, but ethanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Moreover, the action of these extracts increased with increasing their concentration. Hence these plant may be used in developing novel, and economic therapeutic agents for treatment of wounds, and gastrointestinal tract disorders causing bacterial strain. Further investigations on the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate, and black tea, against other pathogenic bacteria, are recommended.

Synthesis and Characterisation of Zinc Oxide Nanopowders Prepared by Precipitation Method

Salar Karim Fatah

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 40-47

In this study, the basic understanding of precipitation method to synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanopowders has been demonstrated. The synthesised nanopowders were formed by mixing Zn (O2CCH3)2 (H2O)2, diethylene glycol (DEG) and deionized water, then the mixed solution was heated at two different temperatures 140 0C and 180 0C for 2 hours. The synthesised nanopowders have been studied by different characterisation techniques as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Results demonstrated that the pure Zinc oxide nanopowders with low trace elements, with uniform morphology, controllable size and narrow-size distribution in diameter were achieved. The synthesized nanopowders can be used as active filler for rubber and plastic, catalyst and gas sensor.

Synthesis, Characterization and Studying Liquid Crystalline Properties of Some Azo - Schiff base Compounds Derivatives

Noor Sabah Al-Obaidi

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 48-58

Four azo-Schiff base liquid crystalline compounds with different polar groups named (A1S, A2S, A3S, A4S) have been synthesized and their structures were characterized by using (FTIR) spectrometry technique the peaks in the infrared spectrum matched the literature in diagnosing the functional groups while their liquid crystalline phase transition and temperature range was confirmed by differential scanning calometery (DSC) which indicate the presence of liquid crystalline phases, The textures of the synthesized liquid crystalline compounds were performed using polarized optical microscope which show a nematic phases in the (A1S) and (A3S) compounds .

On Definition of Expansion Probabilistic Hilbert Space

Ahmed Hasan Hamed

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 59-73

The purpose of this paper is to give a new definition for Expansion probabilistic inner product space (EPIP-space) is given. Based on this definition several convergence theorems and definition for (EPH-space) are instituted and introduced. More over several linear bounded operators are given with some properties of such operators studied in this paper.

Proposed Approach to Detect Phishing Webpage Based on Multi-Browsers

Hala Bahjet Abdul Wahab; Thikra M. Abed

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 74-93

Phishing techniques have not just developed in number, but as well in sophistication. Phishers could have plenty of approaches and techniques to conduct a well-designed phishing attack. Developing countries such as Iraq may have been facing Internet threats like phishing. This paper aim to proposed efficient the phishing detection method. The proposed algorithm utilizes five information sources Google, Yahoo, Startpage, Bing and Mozilla then analyze the information retrieval from five search engines to characterize phishing site. The Several research techniques using single information source protection from Phishing which leads to inaccuracy in results. The proposed algorithm run online with combined between precision the analysis and strong the search engines. The experimental results which implement on 1000 URL demonstrate rate the true positive as 97.4% and the false positive rate 2.6% with true negative as 98.8% and false negative 1.2%.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Dioxoisoindolin Compounds Containing Thiazine, Azetidine, Thiazolidine and Amide Moities

Sulaiman Mahhmoud Hasan; Ismaeel Yaseen Majeed; Ali Hamadi Samir

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 94-107

A compound (1) was done through thiosemicarbazide cyclization in presence of (CS2) and anhydrous of (Na2CO3) in ethylalcohol. Compound (1) was treated with substituted aromatic aldehydes to produced 2- [(subrogateed benzyliden) amino] 1,3,4-thiadiazole (2). Schiff bases prepared by reaction of 2-carboxy thiophenol with (Et3N) to give compound (4). Then the compound (4) was interact with chloro acetyl chloride in Et3N to collect the compound (3). Compound (5) 4- (1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) benzoic acid was prepared from reaction between p-amino benzoic acid and phthalic anhydride in acetic acid and then converted into the 4 - (1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) benzoyl chloride (6) by use thionyl chloride. The reaction of acyl chloride with appropriate primary amine gives amide derivatives (14a-i) while the reaction of acyl compound (6) with thiol derivatives gave compounds (7,8 and 9). Compound (12) was synthesized by the reaction of compound (6) with hydrazine hydrate. Then reacted with appropriate benzaldehyde to give compound (13). The reaction between 4- (1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) benzoic acid (5) and one mole of thiosemicarbazide in presence of phosphorousoxychloride give compound (10) which reacted with p-nitrobenzaldehyde to afford compound (11).

Inhibitory Effect of Myrtus communis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. Extracts on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Foot Ulcers of Diabetic Patients

Mohammed Khalefa Khadir; Abbas Yaseen Hasan; Rana Mohammed Salman

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 108-121

The study included 104 of two types of diabetic patients with foot ulcers. both male and female are involved. their age ranged (35-74) years, the first type of diabetes mellitus is insulin dependent and the second type is insulin nondependent. The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in infected males 75.96% compared with females 24.04%. The study has been performed at Baquba Teaching Hospital during the period from October 2016 to the end of March 2017. In this study, 35 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus have been isolated and diagnosed according to bacteriological and biochemical diagnostic criteria. The study showed that the hot aqueous extract of Myrtus communis and Syzygium aromaticum had strong effect at concentrations of (12.5,25,50,100,200 mg/ml) against the selected isolate of S. aureus with the diameter of inhibition zone (10.20,14.00,16.33,19.21, 22.27mm. respectively) for the first plant, while they were (9.80,12.31,15.56,19.21,21.22 mm. respectively) for the second plant. At the same concentrations mentioned above. the alcohol extract showed an inhibitory effect and the diameter of the inhibition zones were (8.23,12.31,14.21,18.33,20.31mm. respectively) for the first plant, while they were (13.00, 16.33,18.33 ,20.31,24.04mm. respectively) for the second plant. In comparison, the alcohol extract of Syzygium aromaticum showed the higher inhibitory activity against S. aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity performed on all bacterial isolates. twelve type of antibiotics were used, the isolates of bacteria revealed 100% sensitivity to both Vancomycin and Rifampin, while 100% resistance showed to Ampicillin and Penicillin G.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Foot ulcers, Staphylococcus aureus.

Effect of Lactobacillus Bacteria on the Growth of Escherichia coli Isolated from Infants with Amoebic Dysentery Infections

Kareem Ibrahim Mubaruk; Doaa Mahmood Mahady

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 122-135

This study was done in Al Batoul Teaching Hospital from 25/ 9/2016 to 1/2/2017 and 200 stool samples were collected from infants suffer from amoebic dysentery diarrhea with the age less than two years. All stool samples were examined for general stool analysis, cultured on MacConkey agar, the colony characterstic were thoroughly investigated, other biochemical tests were done according to standard procedures, then diagnosed by Api20E and VITEK 2. Fifty (40%) isolates of E. coli were recovered. The E. coli isolates showed different degrees of resistance to cephalosporines so that the resistant rate to Cefixime, Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone and Cefoxitin were 88%, 90%, 84% and 12%, respectively. The sensitive ratio of all isolates to Meropenem antibiotic was 92%. The result showed that MIC values of the Cefixime ranged between 32 and 512 μg / ml, Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone 32 and 1024 μg / mL and Tetracyclin 16 and 512 μg / ml. The current study showed that 96% of isolates from the infant's stool have the ability to produce hemolysin, whereas 4% of the isolates produce bacteriocin with a very high significant statistical difference (P = 0.001). Lactobacillus bacteria were isolated from the stools of very young children and were dependent on breastfeeding by 15%, and 11.4% were obtained from the vaginal wall swabs, the colony morphology was thoroughly investigated and other biochemical tests were done for identification. One isolate was selected as probiotic to determine the inhibitory effect against E. coli and the diameter mean of the inhibition zone on 50 isolates of E. coli was 22.82 mm. It was concluded that Lactobacillus bacteria are useful as probiotics for the treatment of diarrhea caused by E. coli.

Effect of Au doping on the Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 NPs Prepared via Photolysis and co-Precipitation Methods

Zaid Hamid Mahmoud

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 136-146

In this research, Fe3O4 without Au was fabricated via photolysis method, then Au was doped together with concentration of 3 wt.% using co–precipitation method. The samples of Fe3O4 without/with Au doping were characterized utilize XRD, EDX, and TEM while the magnetic properties of the samples were determined utilizing VSM. The results showed that the resistance and the magnetic values of the samples decrease with Au doping indicating semiconducting behavior. The saturation magnetization (MS) of the sample without doping (90.23 emu/g) is much greater than that (63.55 emu/g) of the sample with doping.

Prevalence and Some Epidemiological Features of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Baghdad Medical City Hospitals

Qahtan Adnan Rasheed; Mohammed Shamkhi Jebur

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 147-158

The present study was conducted during the period from 10th march 2017 until 30th June 2017.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbance. Two hundred and fifty blood and stool specimens were collected from patients attending Baghdad Teaching Hospital with the main clinical feature (abdominal pain, nausea and bloating) who had been examined and diagnosed by specialist physicians as suspected acute gastritis. Patients ages ranged from 15–65 years. Serum antibody and fecal antigen have been used to detect the occurrence of H. pylori infection in these patients. Our results showed that there were 250 cases [132 males (52.8%) and 118 females (47.2%)] suspected as acute gastritis cases. The overall infection rate was 39.2% (98 positive samples out of 250). The highest percentage rate of gastritis was in the age group (40-49 years) and significant differences have been found between the age groups (P< 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences have been observed between the two genders. Among the recorded clinical symptoms abdominal pain was the highest (38.4%), followed by loss of appetite (23.6%), nausea (14%), diarrhea (11.6%), bloating (10%) and vomiting (2.4%).

Application to Identify the True Sender in Instant Messaging

Hanaa Mohsin Ahmed; Shahad Fadhil

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 159-171

As cybercrime continues to spread, new e-forensic technologies are needed to counteract persistent yet anonymous fraud. The anonymity offered by the Internet has made the task of tracing criminal identity more difficult. Criminals use virtual identities to hide their true identities, for example via instant messaging (IM), which conceals inherent security risks and malicious tendencies from standard security software. It is essential that there are electronic forensic techniques to help identify cybercriminals as part of a criminal investigation, including identifying gender, writing habits, and stylometrics. This research paper uses statistical methods for the analysis of a template matching Pearson correlation coefficient or Euclid similarity to analyze Enron data and Viber chat messages with regard to distinct data in terms of the definition of the sender using neural networks. We also describe the structure of the creation and analysis of stylometric features for the cybercrime for electronic crime investigations. The proposed system has found a high rate of true identification of the real IM sender, using Pearson matching (88%) and an acceptable rate for Euclid similarity (72%).

Analysis of Nickel Steel Alloys Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry Technique

Khalid Shnawa Ziara

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 172-183

Steel and its alloys have many applications in industry and life in general. Their types and characteristics depends on the types and the amounts of elements present. Therefore, good quality measurements are essential for manufacturing industry to control steel products and processes quality. The objective of this study was to determine the elemental composition of Nickel steel alloys and their concentration. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for the analysis. Analytical results achieved at maximum wavelengths for Nickel 231.604nm, Chromium 267.716nm, Manganese 257.610nm, Silicon 251.611nm and Cupper 324.754nm show that concentrations obtained are in line with those for the reference standard used. Detection limits between 0.00004 to 0.0003 wt% and RSDs of 1.9 – 3.5 % were achieved for the elements analyzed in this study.

On Semi - Pre irresolute Topological Vector Space

Radhi I. M. Ali; Jalal H. Hussein; Suhad K. Hameed

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 183-191

In this work some properties of semi-pre irresolute topological vector space was introduced , also several characterizations of semi-pre Hausdorff are given. Moreover, we show that the extreme point of convex subset of semi-pre irresolute topological space lies on the boundary.

Gold Modification by Reduction of a Diazonium Salt Prepared from Aliphatic Diamine

Ahmed Ismail Kareim

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 192-205

We report on the electrochemical reduction on gold electrode of diazonium salt prepared from lysine. For the first time, the covalent functionalization on gold of an alkyldiazonium salt is demonstrated and required diazotization of one amine group from lysine. The grafted organic films have been achieved and monitored using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) coupled to cyclic voltammetry (CV). Infrared absorption spectra (FTIR) and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the organic film is successfully attached to the surface of the gold substrate. The major advantage and interesting of this procedure is that the diazonium cation is generated closely to the electrode surface. Moreover, the attached layers were found to be stable for two months after storage at room temperature as the recharacterization of modified gold surfaces provided the existence of organic film.This process could be useful for modifying various surfaces by different types of aliphatic amine.

Synthesis, Characterization and Theoretical Study of Some Pyrazole Compounds Derived From 1,1,2-Trimethylbenz[e] Indole

Wassan B. Ali

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 206-219

Among the important heterocyclic compounds pyrazole is a compound which have 5-membered ring structure with 3 carbon atoms and 2 neighbor nitrogen atoms. Many applications of basic organic molecules based on pyrazole are in different fields including pharmacy, agro-chemical industries. There is an increase in the benefit of synthesizing and analyzing different properties, and searching for possible applications of pyrazole derivatives. In this research the focus was to synthesis of new series of pyrazole derivatives (C2-C5) by refluxing hydrazine derivatives with 2-(1,1-Dimethyl1,3-dihydro-benzo[e]indol-2-ylidene)-malonaldehyde, while a last compound was synthesized by reaction compound (1,1,2-Trimethylbenz[e] indole) with phosphoryl chloride in anhydrous dimethylformamide. The synthesized compounds were identified by means of their FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. Density Functional Theory calculations of the synthesized pyrazoles compounds were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries which indicated that the prepared compounds high values of energy gap, EGAP.

Internet Protocol (IP) Steganography Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) Algorithm

Sana Adnan Abbas

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 220-236

All users of the Internet are dealing with Internet protocol (IP). Therefore, it is a kind of smart when IP packet is used as a cover for hiding secret messages. Hence, this paper presents network security by using IP packets steganography. The proposed method is developed by an intelligent technique called modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO). In the proposed system, the secret characters are merged in IP identification field using a proposed embedding algorithm so as the system be more robust in face of attackers. The use of MPSO algorithm is considered as a development to enhance the proposed system, by selecting most convenient packets for hiding inside. The total time for hiding (53) characters in (100) raw sample, if MPSO is employed, takes approximately (128 μs for transmitting and 109 μs for receiving). while the delay time for the same sample without using MPSO is approximately (121μs for transmitting and 98 μs for receiving).

Paleoceanographic Reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous, Black Shale Succession, Northeastern Iraq Using Geochemical Proxies to Indicate Paleoredox and Paleoenvironment Conditions

Khaldoun Ibrahim Ahmad; Salah Ali Hussain; Mutadhid Al-Obaidi

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 237-264

Thirteen outcrop samples of lithified black shale from the North of Iraq, Gulneri Formation, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of organic matter and for trace elements distribution to assess the source of organic matter and the redox state at the time of deposition, respectively. Paleoredox-sensitive (trace) elements including ratios of Ni, V, and Co indicate fluctuations between an oxic, dyoxic, and suboxic/anoxic conditions during the deposition of the formation. Specifically V/(V + Ni) suggests generally low oxygen during the deposition of the formation. Detrital iron oxides are present in some samples. Carbon isotopic values are depleted throughout the formation ranging between -26 to -24. The nitrogen isotopic values record negative values indicative of denitrification of amino acids or nitrogen fixation in the ocean. Mineralogical observations reveal the alteration of pyrite to iron oxides in the bottom of the formation. There are two potential indicators of the deposition setting: first, the lack of pyrite except at the bottom suggests a generally oxic setting. However, fluctuations in the V/Al ratio throughout the formation, low U and Mo and the presence of planktonic foraminifera suggests that the redox conditions fluctuated and were sometimes anoxic at least in the sediment.

Theoretical Study for the Determination the Octane Number of Gasoline Derivatives

Faiz M. Al - Abady

Diyala Journal For Pure Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 265-271

In this study, some physical properties affecting the octane Number of gasoline derivatives were calculated using AM1 semi-experimental methods, including steric energy, heat formation, van der Waals strength, energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO), and hardness values using chemical software. Thus, the statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS program between the calculated variables and the values of the practical octane number. The most important variables were found to have an effect on octane number values (high energy, steric energy, empty energy level, heat formation and spatial impedance) Was obtained in 0.974. The relative error was 7.34 and there was a good match between the values of the practical octane number the calculated from this study.